Aim of assessment: One important way that infants and young children learn about their world is through their psychosocial development. This assessment item aims to provide you with an opportunity to explore the psychosocial development of children in more detail. Throughout the unit, you will examine psychological, social (psychosocial), cognitive and moral components of human development and understand the relationship of these to the shaping of an individual’s self-concept. Commencing in infancy with attachment to parents and caregivers, psychosocial development, according to Erikson, continues throughout the lifespan and involves interactions with caregivers, peers, educators, and the wider social context. This development may be influenced by a variety of normative (expected) and non-normative (deviations from usual) events or circumstances which influence infant and early childhood development (Hoffnung et al., 2019). Scenario topic 2: Bachelor of Nursing students only Read the following Case Study scenario: Andrew, aged 2 and a half years, is attending day care three days a week for five hours each day while his mother Maria works part-time. Maria states that Andrew is speaking in four to five word sentences and communicating his needs well. Andrew’s father, Tom, is a full-time shift worker and he cares for Andrew regularly on his two days off each week. Maria explains that Andrew enjoys music, dancing and singing silly songs with his dad, herself and their large extended family. Andrew is Maria’s first child, and she is concerned that her son is not yet toilet trained during the day or night, especially since she has noticed that other children in day care seem to have mastered this skill during the day. Maria also has questions in relation to healthy eating and active play for Andrew, and the benefits of child care and play groups. The Child and Family Health Nurse has reassured Maria that Andrew is meeting all his developmental milestones and will soon gain daytime continence by the time he is three years old, or soon after. The Nurse has also educated Maria on healthy eating patterns and active play. The Nurse has referred Maria to a 6 mother’s group in her local area to discuss strategies for toilet-training in a relaxed, informal environment with other parents. Essay Topic: Drawing on relevant nursing and social science literature, and using at least two examples from scenario Case Study 2, write an essay on the following topic: What are some important aspects of psychosocial development that occur in children between the ages of two and five years (2-5 years), and what influences this development? Instructions for Assessment 2. In your response, refer to the following components: CRITERION 1 Introduce the developmental stage of the assessment and briefly outline the main examples which will be explored in your essay. – Conforming to the elements of a good introduction, use global statements and no referencing will be required in the introduction as instructed by literacy tutors. However, if you do use in-text referencing and it is appropriate, students will not be penalised if references are cited in the introduction. – After completing your work, construct your essay conclusion by summarising your work and referring back to the points made in your introduction. – See elements of criterion 1: 5 marks allocated. Nursing students only Describe/discuss what psychosocial development involves, drawing on the work of a theorist. Explain two (or more) examples of psychosocial development from the case study. – In your discussion explain what psychosocial development is, its importance to development, and how it links to the age group provided in the case study. – Provide two relevant examples from the case study for discussion. In your discussion of psychosocial development refer to the work of at least one theorist (or more) in your discussion. Relevant theorists include, but are not limited to: 7 Erikson (psychosocial development Vygotsky (sociocultural development) Bronfenbrenner (sociocultural development) Bandura (socio-cognitive development) – Your discussion will outline the normative transitions for the age group and provide relevant evidence-based literature in regards to addressing the needs of the developmental issues in the case study. For example, you may wish to discuss engaging children with healthy eating patterns, active play, childcare, peer communication or some other normative aspect for this age-group. Alternatively, you may instead wish to discuss the normative transition of toilet training in building autonomy and/or peer interaction as building initiative, and include the age-range in toddlers being able to gain full continence. You might wish to explore the role of parenting, peers, childcare, socialisation, safety and/or another aspects of psychosocial development either using the case study, or the literature. – There is no need to write the case study scenario again in your essay. Reference to a particular issue for the case study is all that is required. For example, if you wish to discuss toilet training, identify that toilet training is an issue raised in the case study, then go on to explain how toilet training relates to psychosocial growth and development as per previous example. – Your discussion needs to be supported by scholarly literature eg; peer reviewed journal articles. See marking standards. – See criterion 2: 15 marks allocated. CRITERION 3 Describe two to three examples of factors which influence psychosocial development: – Midwifery students may wish to further discuss or elaborate upon any issues identified in the case study, or address any aspect of hypothetical non-normative development, or a non-normative event, that may potentially influence psychosocial development for this age-group. For example, domestic violence may impact on psychosocial development and post-natal depression may potentially impact on psychosocial development, pointing to the need for midwives to intervene to support parents in these situations. – Nursing students may wish to discuss the issues identified by the child and family health nurse in the scenario, or address some aspect of the physical (age-related) development that may potentially influence psychosocial development for this age-group. – Alternatively, you may wish to discuss non-normative events which may also impact on psychosocial development or the impact of the relationship of parents (parenting styles) which impact on psychosocial development. These may be hypothetical to the case study itself – You may, or may not, wish to link to the case study in your discussion of criterion 3. You do not have to link this criterion to the case study unless you wish to. – Explain the relevance of understanding this childhood life stage to nursing and midwifery practice. You may wish to discuss this, in terms of providing support to parents in three to four sentences. – See criterion 3: 10 marks allocated. CRITERION 4 Review your referencing and make sure your work is fully acknowledged. – See criterion 4: 10 marks allocated REFERENCING REQUIREMENTS – You are required to include a minimum of five (5) recent references (2014 onwards), including two (2) journal articles, to support your discussion. Please note that you can use literature written within the last ten (10) years (2009-2019) as long as you include at least five (5) references that are published within the last five years (2014-2019). Please make good use of peer-reviewed journals to provide evidence and examples to illustrate your points. The peer-reviewed journal collection holds examples of current research conducted with groups and individuals from all life stages, and reference to current research will greatly inform your discussion. WRITING STYLE AND USING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES IN FORMAL WORK – Please write this essay in the third person, avoidingthe use of the first person I or the phrase This author will& to refer to yourself. Find evidence in the literature to support the points you want to make, and avoid recounting personal or anecdotal experiences in your submission. Make sure you write the discussion in formal academic language, and avoid subjective or superficial interpretations of the topics under discussion. 8 ESSAY PLANNING – Students are advised to work closely with the marking criteria and standards sheets as a guide to the construction of this essay. – This submission is to be an essay format only. Please do not use headings in this assessment. 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